GRANARY MUSEUM PROSTREDNI LHOTA
- Old Vltava river
From the history of the old Vltava River in the Chotilsko Surroundings
May: Saturday–Sunday 9 am–4 pm.
June–September: Tuesday–Sunday 9 am–5 pm.
October: Saturday–Sunday 9 am–4 pm.
262 03 Nový Knín
tel. 734 837 333
The Vltava River since the old times has been a pivotal place, through which our ancestors penetrated into the local country. The oldest roads leading through its valley had created a part of the Bohemian transport network since the prehistoric ages. Pathways meandered across the rocky canyons around the river rapids or, vice versa, along the quiet estuaries and often rose up to the heights above the Vltava banks.
In several strategic promontories this road was consequently guarded by the fortified settlements. Its sparkling surface had also served as an indispensable traffic artery for centuries. First almost solely for transport of wood, reputedly since the 12th century, then for the transport of stone – particularly granite as well as salt – since the 16th century, and other goods and people, as well. Documented works resulting in its systematic navigability are dating back to the 16th century.
Significant economic activities took place near the river; in the Central Vltava Area along with timbering mainly mining activities, concentrated on the already mentioned stone and also gold extraction, were undertaken. A very important part of the central part of the Vltava River winds in the area of the Chotilsko urban area, bordered by the village of Zvírotice in the south and the erstwhile Svatojánské (St. John´s) Streams near Štěchovice in the north.
Let´s go back, dive in the times and waves passed long ago and in the course of the centuries set out down the stream of the queen of Czech rivers – the Big River, as the Vltava is also sometimes called...
We start our wayfaring through the Central Vltava Area in the Chotilsko surroundings about 10 km south-west from this village up the Vltava stream, where the village of Záběhlice, which is already extinct now, was located on the left bank and was connected with the Zvírotice village on the opposite right bank by the flying ferry. In 1951, before the construction of the Slapy Dam, Zvírotice had about 50 living homes. After filling up the reservoir in 1954 only 7 homesteads, which were situated in the highest locations, remained.
On the right bank down the Vltava stream there was the Rybárna settlement. Above it there lies the Early Bronze Age burial ground, dated till the 12th –11th centuries B.C., which represents the biggest burial ground of this period, known so far in Bohemia!
First written reference to Zvírotice was in 1322. Apparently from the 14th century till the Hussite Wars there also was a stronghold. From the recent history of Zvírotice pubs and also a water mill with a sawmill are mentioned; in the 80s of the 19th century their part comprised a dockyard, where cargo ships for transport of stone from the local quarries, designated mainly for Prague, were built.
The main economic potential was represented by mining activities in the form of extraction of the Vltava granite in the local quarries, which employed even in the 20th century more than 300 people. Local granite transported on the ships to Prague was used, for example, in 1850–1881 for construction of the National Theatre, famous monuments, statues and also kilometres of the stoned pavements, roads, bridges, etc.
On the left bank of the Vltava River there is the village of Županovice. Approximately its half was also flooded after the origination of the Slapy Dam reservoir in 1954 and 125 inhabitants had to abandon it.
Županovice is also rich in prehistoric findings, particularly remains of primeval animals´ bones (rhinoceroses, horses and others), originating from the period of 15 000–10 000 years B. C. The oldest written document is the Deed of 1235, which confirms that the daughter of Czech King Přemysl Otakar I. – Anežka (sainted in 1989), who bequeathed the village to the Order of the Crusaders of the Red Star hospital in 1238, was the owner of Županovice.
A large part of the local inhabitants was engaged in mining entrepreneurship in the neighbouring quarries or in extraction and processing of gold, others ran watermanship in riverboats or rafts – “cargo boats”. In the watercourse of the Vltava near Županovice Jan Ferdinand Schor built in 1729 a stone sluice for boats, the first one in Bohemia!
Not far off the sluice, on the right bank of the river there was the above mentioned Rybárna hamlet. From it down the river there was an about 5 – km – long sector bound by the rocks, with the stones in the river-bed, including a small island called Svině, on the left bank there was the Pohodnice hamlet and in the meander of the river nearby the Hubenovský Creek mouth the left bank settlement – Bukevnice (Bukovnice). Since the 14th century it had been reminded as a fortified residence of the manager of the neighbouring gold mining claims and a place, where a stamp-mill for gold ore crushing by means of water wheels operated. After termination of mining activities a water mill and a saw-mill originated here.
Our next stop is at the Cholín settlement, which since the old times has belonged to the important crossings across the Vltava on the way from Sedlčany to Nový Knín and Mníšek pod Brdy. Establishment of the prehistoric upland housing estate on the right bank of the Vltava in the place called Malé (Dolní, Dolejší) Kolo is apparently connected with it. It originated in the Late Stone Age (3 000–2 800/2 700 years B.C.). It is so far the most explored location of that period in the Upper and Central Vltava Areas. Documents on settlement also during the Middle Bronze Age (1 600–1 400 B. C.) were discovered here. In the Middle Ages (13th –14th centuries) a stronghold existed here. The round hill fort Velké (Hořejší) Kolo with findings of the medieval ceramics lies at a distance.
On the right bank of the Vltava in the end of the 18th century a peg workshop was established. It produced wooden pegs, which were used by the shoemakers for fixing shoe soles. To the left of the Vltava on the hill since the Middle Ages there has been a homestead, originally of the Karlštejn fiefdom, later on a farmstead. It consists of a mill, a saw-mill, a natatorial pub and a ferry, also situated by the river. In 1860 the mill and the saw-mill were rebuilt into a wool spinning factory, which employed approx. 60 workers. The industrial factory, however, burnt down in 1892. The site of the fire and the whole farmstead were bought by Alfred Roth, who established here in 1900 a leather processing factory for glove production with a capacity of up to 100 workers. This industrial production in Cholín had existed till economic crisis at the beginning of the 30s of the 20th century. The renowned natatorial pub and the ferryboat, which were run by a noble Weidenthaler and his family after filling up the Slapy reservoir in 1954, had existed for a significantly longer time.
Underneath forested Drbákov hill (490 m above sea level), which is the highest hill in this part of the Vltava Area, approximately 2 km down the river from Cholín, on the right bank there was the Oboz settlement, locally called Voboz, earlier also called Vobůz, which was already mentioned in 1497. Before filling up in 1954 it had 16 buildings. The best known object lying at the very edge of the village was a so-called salt-house or an imperial warehouse and a salt transhipment yard, which existed here from the 16th to the 19th century. The salt-houses originated nearby the important roads crossing the Vltava, by which salt was transported from the south to Prague. From these crossings part of goods was afterwards dispatched to other inland areas. Particularly, salt from here owing to the Oboz ferry went to Sedlčany and Dobříš areas. In the 19th century the salt-house was remade into a granary and later on it was rebuilt into flats for the employees of the neighbouring Cholín factory.
Oboz was particularly a raftsmen´s and cargo boat drivers´ village, which was not short of a natatorial pub. On the opposite bank there was the settlement of Trenčín, earlier Třemšín, coming under the village of Smilovice and connected with Oboz by the above mentioned ferry.
Thanks to occurrence of common yew, Drbákov hill overhanging Oboz was declared a natural reservation called Drbákovské tisy. The neighbouring high rocks, which border the river and are called Bílé skály (White Rocks, later on Albertovy), represent the habitat of rare plants and animals, which led to enlargement of the reservation in 1977 and building a nature trail in 1987. Nature trails and protected natural localities have gradually originated also in other places of the surrounding area.
Opposite Bílé skály there used to be the left bank village of Smilovice, which originated on the peninsula created by the Vltava bend and the valley of the Čelinský Creek. It is mentioned in the written sources dating back to 1045, when Czech Prince Břetislav gave it to Břevnovský Monastery as a present. In the Middle Ages there was a towering stronghold here, which used to be a fiefdom of Dobříš Royal Castle and later was taken over by the Order of the Crusaders of the Red Star. During the Hussite Wars in the first half of the 15th century the village ceased to exist and only the stronghold with the manorial farmstead remained. New settlement took place before 1653. At that time five homesteads arose here, which had remained until flooding by the Slapy Dam in 1954. Presumably, the so-called “puchýrna”, in other words grinding and crushing plants (stamping mills) of gold ore, mentioned in the Official Books in the middle of the 16th century in connection with the treatment process in mining undertakings in the local gold ore district, originally worked in the places of the local mills. On Čihadlo hill northwards of the Čelinský Creek archaeological research discovered numerous mining workplaces coming from the period of the culminating Middle Ages up to the early modern period dated back to the 13th – 16th century. The main period of blooming of the mining activities was brought by the end of the 13th through to the beginning of the 15th century. Afterwards the signs of decline of mining activities began to appear. Attempts to restore and extend extraction had been undertaken up to the 20th century; nevertheless, they were not very successful. An entirely different view brought exploration work performed in 1980–1990 by the state enterprise Geoindustria Prague stating that in the Mokrsko – west deposit about 90 tonnes of gold was still hidden underground, which immediately ranked this locality to the largest deposits in Europe. The estimated amount of gold corresponds to the total production in Bohemia for the last two millenniums! However, the so far possible open-cast mining methods would mean a very serious intervention in the natural environment and a landscape, therefore under present conditions it appears to be unacceptable. The legal status of the protected deposit territory remains here.
Down the stream from Smilovice the Vltava River makes a big bend and flows past Častoboř, lying on the right bank. Originally, in 1251 there used to be a farmplace here, which in the 19th century belonged to the manor Nalžovice and had a large sheepcote with a numerous flock of sheep feeding on the eastern Vltava banks.
Further, to the right of the streaming river there lay the hamlet of Sejce with an old natatorial pub and an adjacent homestead. Not far away from here the Musík Creek, heading to Sejce from Chlum and Nalžovice through a picturesque valley, flows into the Vltava from the right.
Directly opposite the Sejce pub the homestead of Vymyšlenka with a ferry clinged to the slope of the left rocky bank of the Vltava; the homestated also had a small pub until the 1st World War. Over the former Vymyšlenka hamlet in the course of time another protected area with original vegetation and thermophilous flora arose. Not less attractive destination for nature lovers was also Sejcký Island with sandy beaches, about one kilometre down the river from the Sejce pub. This island was also called Tajemný or Tajemňák (mysterious) by watermen, scouts and tramps. North of Sejcký Island the Vltava and its right bank tributary, the longest and the most watery creek of the Sedlčany area – Mastník, created a large raised promontory, which was chosen by our ancestors for settlement in the prehistoric times. That place is nowadays named Hrazany, after the neighbouring village, and it revealed the oldest evidence of people stay in the region dating back to the Old Stone Age (400 000–10 000 years B. C.) and consequently to the Middle Stone Age - Mesolithic Period (8 000–6 000 years B. C.). The presence of the human beings was also confirmed in the Late Stone Age – Eneolithic Period (4 200–2 300 years B. C.). Traces of the civilization continue in the Late Bronz Age (11th –9th cent. B. C.) and the Late Iron Age (6th –5th cent. B. C.). Hrazany did not remain abandoned even at the beginning of the Roman Period (40–0 B. C.). In the Middle Ages (14th century) there stood a stronghold on Červenka hill. In 1419 an armed conflict between the Hussites and Catholics took place here. In the place called Hrádnice, almost in the middle of the erstwhile oppidum of the 2nd – 1st cent. B. C., there is a modern yard, which has been settled up to the present day.
Apparently the most significant period of Hrazany is connected with the Early Iron Age called La Tène, when the Celts established here, nearby the important Vltava route, an oppidum, or a fortified centre of the region, as the second one in Bohemia (the oldest oppidum originated in Závisť). It occurred approx. in the middle of the 2nd century B. C. The history of the oppidum is wedded with a number of construction stages. Long-lasting archeological research and geophysical exploration discovered an area of at least 40 ha with a system of sophisticated fortification, including several gates. They also outlined an inner structure of the settlement, documented the existence of the advanced economic activities involved in ferrous metallurgy, non-ferrous metals metallurgy, pottery and other crafts connected with rich commercial contacts with neighbouring and more distant worlds. The Celts abandoned the oppidum somewhen after the middle of the 1st century B. C.
The left bank settlement of Kobylníky (earlier also Kobylnice), named allegedly after stones scattered in the river and situated opposite Hrazany, is mentioned in the sources in connection with the existence of the farmstead, which Czech Queen Kunhuta (the wife of Přemysl Otakar II) presented to the Order of the Crusaders of the Red Star in 1271. Kobylníky belongs to the significant places impacted in the Middle Ages and early modern times in 13th – 16th century by the oldest method of gold extraction, namely placer mining in the alluviums of the Vltava fluvial plain.
On the left bank hardly one kilometre down the river underneath Kobylníky, in the place, where the Radíč Creek (also called Janský or Ústecký and earlier in the past - Vosojná) flows into the river, there was the settlement named Nouze. The ferry connected it with the village of Ústí (Oustí, Ústice), named so because the Mastník Creek flowed into the Vltava here from the right side.
In Ústí there was a primeval mill run by the water from Mastník, fisrt documented in 1497. During a short period there also stood a salt-house here.
On the promontory between Mastník and the Vltava in the Middle Ages there existed Ostromeč Castle, dated till the 14th century, When the Knight Family of Břekovci from Ostromeč ruled here. During the Hussite Wars in 1424–1435 it was held by the Taborites. At that time a scrivener Jan from Prague, who created the beautifully illumined bible here, later known as Padařovská, allegedly resided here. In the middle of the 16th century Ostromeč Castle was already mentioned as ruins.
In the surroundings there are several appealing views. One of them is near Zavoral granite cross of 1939 on the rock overhanging the Vltava. It got its name after the Strahov´s abbot ThDr. Method Zavoral, a native of nearby Neveklov, who loved this country and was a patron for a lot of its inhabitants. Sanctification of the cross on 28th September 1939 unto St. Václav´s turned into the demonstration of the people from the Vltava Area against the Nazi occupants. It was during the 2nd World War (1939–1945), when our country was occupied by Hitler Germany. At the period of the next totality after the communist takeover in February 1948 the cross was destroyed and thrown off the rock. It was restored after November 1989 with the return of democracy.
Less than 2 km down the Vltava stream from the former settlement of Ústí, where we had the last stop in our travelling through the Vltava Area, there lies the village of Živohošť, whose past, perhaps of all so far visited localities, is wedded with the beginnings of the Czech State the most. The oldest written document comes from 1057. Živohošť was a princely farmstetad of the Přemysl family, where, according to another written report coming from 1141, Czech Prince Vladislav II with his numerous entourage spent the previous Christmas (in 1140). The symbol of Živohošť is St. Fabián and Šebestián Church on the left bank of the Vltava, dated back to the 12th century on the basis of the archeological research and first documented in writing in 1271, when Czech Queen Kunhuta, the wife of the King Přemysl Otakar II, gave it to the Order of the Crusaders of the Red Star. Archeological research found a medieval graveyard here and recorded construction development of the originally
Roman three-aisled basilica of the 12th century, consecutively with the Gothic reconstruction of the 14th century and finally with Pseudo-Roman modification of the 60s of the 19th century. Next to the Church on the left bank there is Baroque Presbytery of the 17th century, as a part of the farmyard. There also was a two-class school (until 1952), which was attended by the significant native from nearby Hněvšín, František Drtina, later a university professor, scientist, politician, fellow worker and friend of the President of the Republic Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk.
Živohošť had been famous for its ford and ferry on the route Dobříš – Neveklov, as well as natatory history since the old times. On the right bank nearby the ferryman there was a historical Rákosníkova pub with the year 1617 chiseled out on the joist. The famous music composer Josef Suk visited the pub, the writer Alois Jirásek, above mentioned František Drtina and other famous people paid a visit to this pub. At the beginning of the 20th century Živohošť had 21 houses and about 140 inhabitants. Due to the influence of the growing tourist industry between the Wolrd Wars one of the first modern hotels, far and near, originated on the left bank in 1936. Tourists were also interested in Besedná, the highest hill in this part of the Vltava Area (496 m above sea level), which rises up 3 km west of Živohošť over villages Křeničná and Hněvšín. In 1926 a tourist outlook tower was built here, which was named in honour of Hněvšín´s native, prof. František Drtina. Unfortunately, since the 50s of the 20th century its maintenance and repairs had been neglected, which finally resulted in demolition of the outlook tower in 1967. After filling up of the Slapy Dam in 1954 most of the original constructions on both banks of the Vltava ceased to exist. Only several objects near St. Fabián and Šebestián Church outlived. However, even there the level rose almost up to the circular graveyard wall nearby the Basilica. Beneath it the depth of the reservoir is about 40 metres.
After Živohošť the Vltava stream veered sharply to the left. In the 50s of the 20th century the river-bed was crossed by a ferroconcrete bridge, 245 metres long, built simultaneously with the Slapy Dam. This bridge opened a route of the newly-built road from Chotilsko to Neveklov.
Further, there lay the settlement of Moráň, whose fate had been connected for many years with the history of the nearby Malčany yard, situated high over the left bank of the river. First written reference dates back to 1390, when Moráň was described as a part of the property of Benedictine Monastery Ostrov near Davle and since 1517 – the Monastery in Svatý Jan pod Skalou near Beroun. The record of a natatorial pub in Moráň comes from 1597 and in the 17th century there is a record of a mill standing beside it, on the Mereda Creek, near its outfall into the Vltava. In 1784 the statue of St. Jan Nepomucký, the patron saint of swimmers, was put up in the area between the mill and the pub. Next to the pub there was a small brewery mentioned in the beginning of the 18th century. The brewery had operated until the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. Before its abolishment in the end of the 19th century a storey hostelry originated here, which was designed particularly for trippers from Prague. Raftsmen and cargo boat drivers, who formerly stopped here a lot, began to visit another Moráň´s pub, which belonged to the Vodrážka family.
South of this place there was a Kocanda hamlet and northwards – Hruškov. A settlement, which bordered Moráň in the north by the left bank, was Povalilka, formerly also called Povadilka.
After the Moráň settlement the river flowed under the high, mostly bare slope, called Ždáňská hill (392 m above sea level). On the contrary, the opposite right bank was low. It graded to the meadows and fields, which belonged to the village of Královská. After the next river meander the small village of Ždáň settled down. It was followed by Babor hamlet situated on the right bank of the Vltava.
On the left bank of the Vltava, in the places marked as an entry to the Svatojánské Streams, in 1914 a tourist restaurant with hostelry rooms, called the Záhoří Hotel, was built. Just before the Hotel a small creek flowing here from Přestavlky ran into the Vltava. Over its left bank between the Lahoz hamlet and its mouth into the Vltava, there is a locality named the Centre of the Czech Kingdom. Folk tradition strongly believed the said statement. In order to properly mark this area on the bare hillside, three high wooden crosses, which were replaced by the stone crosses in 1878, were put up here. Further attraction was a place called Rovínek, situated on the hillside directly above the Záhoří Hotel. In 1841 local people built here, on the small plain, an Imperial chapel. It soon became a favourite pilgrimage place. In 1954 the Slapy reservoir level fortunately stopped just in front of its walls.
The wildest and at the same time the most beautiful parts of the Vltava were the Svatojánské Streams. In the past people connected their origin with action of the devil. Up to the 18th century, and often even longer, the simple naming Streams, sometimes also Skalní (Rocky) Streams or Štěchovické Streams, was used here. The place, where according to the legend the devil wanted to obstruct the river flow, was formerly the most dangerous place in the whole Vltava, indeed. That was so-called Hořejší (Upper) Rapid (sault), or the rock Sedlo extending from the left bank almost to the middle of the flow. The Vltava here pushed its way forward only through a narrow glen along the right bank. Five metres down the flow there was Dolejší (Lower) Sault.
Men have endeavoured to make the Vltava navigable since time immemorial. First reports about these activities in the Streams come from the middle of the 16th century, when the water route for transportation of the “Royal salt” was being prepared. It is possible that removing of the biggest obstacles started here even earlier. A big job was done in the 17th century by a capable organizer of the navigability work, Strahov´s Abbot Kryšpín Fuk, namely in the period of the rule of Emperor of Austria and King of Bohemia Ferdinand III Habsburg. When the Abbot pronounced his participation in the Vltava change finished in 1643, he chose exactly the rock Sedlo, with proverbial spoors of the devil´s hoof, in order to put up a monument of human endeavour in the shape of the so-called Ferdinand Column (in honour of the sovereign Ferdinand III, ruling at that time), which became a prominent symbol of the Svatojánské Streams. In 1722 another sculpture originated in the neighbourhood, St. Jan Nepomucký statue (its damaged original was replaced by the imitation in 1908). Only since that time a new name of the Streams – Svatojánské Streams has gradually taken hold.
Public interest in cognition of the beautiful picturesque landscape in the surroundings of the Vltava not far from Prague had significantly increased since 1865, after commencement of steam navigation from nearby Štěchovice. In 1889 the first marked tourist path in our country originated here.
The Slapy Dam arose nearby the Lower Sault of the Svatojánské Streams in 1949–1955. Its filling up started from 1954. The height of the dam is 65–70 metres, the length of its crest is 260 metres; the power plant disposes of three adjustable-blade-type turbines. The main designer of the work was an architect Libor Záruba. The dam held up the Vltava flow for a distance of 44 km and created water surface with the area of 1 392 hectares.
Underneath the dam St. Jan Nepomucký statue, which used to stand above the Upper Sault, found its new place and at hand, on the rock, the Ferdinand Column, which was also rescued from the flooding, was newly put up. However, at the time when the construction of the Slapy Dam started, the Svatojánské Streams had not existed for more than five years, because the river bank had also been calmed down by the Štěchovice Dam before. It held up the Vltava flow up to the Záhoří Hotel in 1943.
Not only the designation of the most feared sector of the Vltava for swimmers and the most picturesque part of the landscape for nature lovers is wedded with the Svatojánské Streams, but also it is the area connected with the scout movement history and the beginnings of Czech tramping. In Kletecko, by the left bend of the Vltava, the first tramp settlement called Ztracená naděje (Lost Hope) was established in 1918. In the course of time in the neighbourhood of „Ztracenka“, as this settlement was called, a number of other tramp settlements and camps originated, where beautiful comradely spirit and unrepeatable atmosphere of friendliness ruled by the camping fires. Thus, however, we would open the next chapter of the Big River chronicled in the Chotilsko village surroundings...
The significant part of the history of the 20th century of the Central Vltava Area in Chotilsko surroundings is created by the chapters documenting participation of the local inhabitants in the struggle for national freedom, democracy, building the independent state and consequential defence of the Republic against Nazi evil or in the conditions of the communist upheaval in February 1948. Silent witnesses of those events are nowadays, among others, monuments, plaques and memorials scattered in many villages or settlements along the Vltava and other material and immaterial documents proving heroism of local people, unfortunately many times veiled by the cobweb of oblivion or even hidden under the Slapy Dam surface...
They talk particularly about an enormous number of human casualties in the ranks of soldiers called up from this picturesque area against their will to the Habsburg monarchy army during the period of the 1st World War (1914–1918).
Nor participants of the anti-Austrian revolt in Czechoslovak military units – legions operating in all battlefronts of the world conflict (1914–1918), missed in the Vltava Area. With arms in their hands they contributed to breakup of Austria – Hungary and establishment of the independent Czechoslovak Republic in 1918.
Representatives of the local anti-Austrian movement recruited from this area. They were led by prof. František Drtina, a native of Hněvšín village, since 1914 a member of the illegal countrywide patriotic anti-Austrian organization, within the framework of which he closely cooperated with the later key personalities, who were at the birth of the Czechoslovak Republic in 1918 – Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, Edvard Beneš, Jan Herben (Drtina´s brother-in-law), Přemysl Šámal, Alois Rašín, Josef Svatopluk Machar, František Soukup, Josef Scheiner and other representatives of the so-called upheaval action in 1918.
However, not even twenty years passed and our country faced the threat again, this time from the Nazi Germany and its henchmen at home and abroad. Since the half of the 1930s Czechoslovakia had prepared for defence. It anticipated that it would prop upon the system of the borderline and inland fortification situated on the strategically important places. In 1938 along the Vltava sophisticated ferroconcrete bunkers with light fortification, pattern 37 called „řopík“ (after the Headquarters of fortification works – ŘOP) of the Czechoslovak Army, which was a part of the 150-km-long so-called the Vltava bunkers line, heading from South Bohemia to Slapy, were built. It was connected with the southern wing, so-called Prague bunkers line, in other words fortification bridgehead of the capital city Prague.
However, in the end of 1938, as it is known, Munich dictate occurred, the command of the politicians of the Republic not to defend and consecutively on 15th March 1939 German occupation of our country took place. The Nazis destroyed all finished bunkers by means of explosives, only the bunker by Zvírotice, and further by the Živohošť ferry (nowadays 37 m under water) and in Moráň (at a depth of 42 metres below the river surface) were impaired by concrete encasement. They have existed up to this day, covered by the Slapy Reservoir, as a symbol of resolution of the Czechoslovak Army and majority of inhabitants to repugn the Nazi aggressors. At the same time they are a silent reminder of the defamatory betrayal and failure of the collective security policy. We had to pay a cruel price for those fateful moments and historical decisions during the 2nd World War (1939–1945) in economic area, in the amount of human sacrifices in the anti-Nazi revolt, physical liquidation of the Jewish fellow citizens and mainly the wounds in the people´s morality unhealed by now.
Unfortunately, at that time the conditions for another totality were already being created, which seized power in this country three years after the end of the 2nd World War, after the communist upheaval in February 1948 and left harmful traces in the Vltava Area, too. The Big River could also talk about it...
At present this picturesque area is a sought-after place of lovers of nature, tourism and also numerous sights. Permanent museum exposition named From the History of the Old Vltava in Chotilsko Surroundings testifies about rich past and enchanting Vltava scenery. In 2013 it was made accessible to the public in Chotilsko thanks to the community and Mining Museum in Příbram, an allowance organization. Further interesting information on these points at issue is available in Špýchar (granary) Prostřední Lhota Museum, in Museum of Gold in Nový Knín, during wayfaring along many nature trails and elsewhere. Welcome to the Central Vltava Area.